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媒体:我们不可能复制43.230.113,防御高带宽大性价比高的美国服务器,御史大夫 也无须设置监察
2019-04-06 03:25

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43.230.113.5 43.230.113.47 43.230.113.89 43.230.113.131 43.230.113.173 43.230.113.215
43.230.113.6 43.230.113.48 43.230.113.90 43.230.113.132 43.230.113.174 43.230.113.216
43.230.113.7 43.230.113.49 43.230.113.91 43.230.113.133 43.230.113.175 43.230.113.217
43.230.113.8 43.230.113.50 43.230.113.92 43.230.113.134 43.230.113.176 43.230.113.218
43.230.113.9 43.230.113.51 43.230.113.93 43.230.113.135 43.230.113.177 43.230.113.219
43.230.113.10 43.230.113.52 43.230.113.94 43.230.113.136 43.230.113.178 43.230.113.220
43.230.113.11 43.230.113.53 43.230.113.95 43.230.113.137 43.230.113.179 43.230.113.221
43.230.113.12 43.230.113.54 43.230.113.96 43.230.113.138 43.230.113.180 43.230.113.222
43.230.113.13 43.230.113.55 43.230.113.97 43.230.113.139 43.230.113.181 43.230.113.223
43.230.113.14 43.230.113.56 43.230.113.98 43.230.113.140 43.230.113.182 43.230.113.224
43.230.113.15 43.230.113.57 43.230.113.99 43.230.113.141 43.230.113.183 43.230.113.225
43.230.113.16 43.230.113.58 43.230.113.100 43.230.113.142 43.230.113.184 43.230.113.226
43.230.113.17 43.230.113.59 43.230.113.101 43.230.113.143 43.230.113.185 43.230.113.227
43.230.113.18 43.230.113.60 43.230.113.102 43.230.113.144 43.230.113.186 43.230.113.228
43.230.113.19 43.230.113.61 43.230.113.103 43.230.113.145 43.230.113.187 43.230.113.229
43.230.113.20 43.230.113.62 43.230.113.104 43.230.113.146 43.230.113.188 43.230.113.230
43.230.113.21 43.230.113.63 43.230.113.105 43.230.113.147 43.230.113.189 43.230.113.231
43.230.113.22 43.230.113.64 43.230.113.106 43.230.113.148 43.230.113.190 43.230.113.232
43.230.113.23 43.230.113.65 43.230.113.107 43.230.113.149 43.230.113.191 43.230.113.233
43.230.113.24 43.230.113.66 43.230.113.108 43.230.113.150 43.230.113.192 43.230.113.234
43.230.113.25 43.230.113.67 43.230.113.109 43.230.113.151 43.230.113.193 43.230.113.235
43.230.113.26 43.230.113.68 43.230.113.110 43.230.113.152 43.230.113.194 43.230.113.236
43.230.113.27 43.230.113.69 43.230.113.111 43.230.113.153 43.230.113.195 43.230.113.237
43.230.113.28 43.230.113.70 43.230.113.112 43.230.113.154 43.230.113.196 43.230.113.238
43.230.113.29 43.230.113.71 43.230.113.113 43.230.113.155 43.230.113.197 43.230.113.239
43.230.113.30 43.230.113.72 43.230.113.114 43.230.113.156 43.230.113.198 43.230.113.240
43.230.113.31 43.230.113.73 43.230.113.115 43.230.113.157 43.230.113.199 43.230.113.241
43.230.113.32 43.230.113.74 43.230.113.116 43.230.113.158 43.230.113.200 43.230.113.242
43.230.113.33 43.230.113.75 43.230.113.117 43.230.113.159 43.230.113.201 43.230.113.243
43.230.113.34 43.230.113.76 43.230.113.118 43.230.113.160 43.230.113.202 43.230.113.244
43.230.113.35 43.230.113.77 43.230.113.119 43.230.113.161 43.230.113.203 43.230.113.245
43.230.113.36 43.230.113.78 43.230.113.120 43.230.113.162 43.230.113.204 43.230.113.246
43.230.113.37 43.230.113.79 43.230.113.121 43.230.113.163 43.230.113.205 43.230.113.247
43.230.113.38 43.230.113.80 43.230.113.122 43.230.113.164 43.230.113.206 43.230.113.248
43.230.113.39 43.230.113.81 43.230.113.123 43.230.113.165 43.230.113.207 43.230.113.249
43.230.113.40 43.230.113.82 43.230.113.124 43.230.113.166 43.230.113.208 43.230.113.250
43.230.113.41 43.230.113.83 43.230.113.125 43.230.113.167 43.230.113.209 43.230.113.251
43.230.113.42 43.230.113.84 43.230.113.126 43.230.113.168 43.230.113.210 43.230.113.252
43.230.113.1 43.230.113.43 43.230.113.85 43.230.113.127 43.230.113.169 43.230.113.211
43.230.113.2 43.230.113.44 43.230.113.86 43.230.113.128 43.230.113.170 43.230.113.212
43.230.113.3 43.230.113.45 43.230.113.87 43.230.113.129 43.230.113.171 43.230.113.213
43.230.113.4 43.230.113.46 43.230.113.88 43.230.113.130 43.230.113.172 43.230.113.214
43.230.113.253  43.230.113.254  43.230.113.25

最近因为职业及专业的要求,集中看了一批硕士生的法史论文,发现大家的写作很“格式化”,都是在梳理介绍完某一制度的发展历史后,总结其特点,分析其成因,在最后评论部分,不忘加上一段对完善当下制度的“启示”或“可资借鉴”之处。然而,细读这些被他们称为“创新点”的部分,会发现有将古代与现当代制度之间“生拉硬拽”在一起的痕迹,这种混搭,除了有凑论文字数和完善文章结构作用外,实际上并无多大价值。这样说似乎有些绝对,“打击面”过宽,不过大致上是没错的。

别说是学生,即便是研究某专门史的专家,要想把古代某一行之有效的制度,直接拿来作用或指导今天的社会实践,恐怕也会凿枘不合。譬如我们当下设立的“监察委”,虽然有学者将其历史渊源追溯到古代,但无论是设置理念、法律地位还是其具体的机构与社会职能,它与从秦汉以来就已产生并逐步完善起来的监察制度早已今非昔比了。在此情形下,古代独具一格的御史监察制度能为我们所借鉴的地方,恐怕也只是一些枝节性的技术或技巧,而要想在一篇文章或一本著作中,透彻地分析其实践价值,单靠“论道”之“书生”的想象是难以为继的。由此想到,在我们时常将“继承和发扬优秀传统文化”挂在嘴边的时候,如何古为今用,就成为一个值得我们思考的问题。

有些古已有之的东西,我们一直还在沿用,比如马拉车与牛耕田,至今仍是偏远乡村农民的劳作方式;对于书法家来说,毛笔依然是他们龙飞凤舞时的工具;阳历纪年引入中国虽已有一百多年的历史,但在人们心中,农历春节依然是一元复始的起点;而二十四节气的时令标志,则至今没有与之相匹敌的替代品。这些生产或生活的方式,仿佛凝固在了岁月中,时间的长河无论流淌到什么年代,它们都有亘古不变的机能,这或许可以说就是我们的文化基因,无所谓古,也无所谓今。

与此相反,在另外一些场域中,因时代的变迁,内涵早已发生了质的变化,当此之时的发扬与借鉴,就须在时过境迁的背景下,进行“创造性”的传承。比如说传统社会中儒家所提倡的孝道,可谓人之为人的最基本的人伦规范,即便是在二十一世纪的今天,有谁敢否认其意义和价值?一个连自己父母都不孝顺的人,谁敢和他交往,因此尽孝似乎就成了一个人生存的前提之一,而怎么尽孝自然也是一个常新的话题。

撇开儒家提倡孝道时“君子事亲孝,故忠可移于君”的政治因素,在日常生活中,要求子女尽孝,旨在让子女感恩父母的辛勤养育,这也是培养人伦关系最基础的一环。那么怎么才算是尽了孝道,法律上虽有“善事父母”“无违父母”等的规定,但生活中的表现则又各具情态,二十四孝的故事本身就说明尽孝其实并无一定之规。古人对此也曾有很好的解释,“百善孝为先,论心不论迹,论迹天下无孝子”,即便是再孝顺的子女,做事也有不周全的时候,但他只要能让父母感受得到他的“孝心”,让他们心满意足,也就算是尽了孝。

但在今天却有一些人把感恩、孝顺父母,变成一种机械的要求,好像只要做了这些事,忤逆之子也能立马变成孝子。比如有的学校组织学生在大操场上给母亲洗脚。搞一次集体洗脚活动,就能培养起学生的孝心,这颇让人怀疑;还有公司为了显示自己的人文关怀,要求职员在春节期间,为自己的父母洗一次脚,并且要上传视频作为证据。这些学校校长或公司老总的初衷是好的,但他们却机械教条地理解尽孝的含义,并且将孝道简单粗暴地浓缩为一场活动,这就是有问题的。

我们今天依然提倡孝道,是要延续传统家庭中父母子女之间那种亲密敬爱温暖友善的关系,而绝不是教条式地践履儒家的那些格言警句。假如我们遵从《论语》中的“父母在,不远游,游必有方”,那是否意味着我们必须都“宅”在家里?外出求学、打工是否都属于不孝的行为?其实,在父母身边承欢膝下是孝,而闯荡江湖创造一番事业,让父母内心欢喜,又何尝不是在尽孝?

古代传统文化的启示或可资借鉴之处,当是其中所蕴含的精神或情怀,比如根植于人性的仁爱、友善、诚信、和谐,生活中的忍耐、勤奋、朴实,面对族群社会时的责任、担当等,而不是机械地崇古尚古,食古不化。从这个角度而言,我们实在无法说清该如何古为今用。对于那些已经持久且将继续影响着我们的思想和行为方式,应给予尊重和认同,或许这才是我们传承传统的正确方式。正如我们对御史监察制度、监察权的借鉴一样,我们不可能复制御史大夫,也无须设置监察院,但我们通过对权力运行进行监督,建立一支勤政、廉洁、高效、公正的公务员队伍,正是我们传承这项“固有的优良制度”的目标所在。在这期间,我们的学者或学子们或可在复兴文化传统中发挥积极作用。

漫画/曹一

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